Fostering and Measuring Skills: Improving Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Skills to Promote Lifetime Success
This paper reviews the current literature on measuring and fostering non-cognitive skills. Non-cognitive skills in this paper refer to personal attributes not thought to be measured by IQ or achievement tests (p.13). The term can be used interchangeably with social and emotional learning. The paper is organized by the following topics related to non-cognitive skills: definitions and measures; evidence on the predictive power of non-cognitive skills; analysis of the skills needed in the workforce; and a review of evidence about the efficacy of education, parental investment, and interventions in improving non-cognitive skills from preschool, elementary school, and adolescence. The paper concludes that non-cognitive skills have strong effects on educational attainment and important life outcomes beyond schooling.